Control of Harmonics Generated by Alternating Current Electric Arc Furance and Laddle Furnace


Rajashekar P. Mandi
Janak J. Patel
Hitesh R. Jariwala
Ankur Vashi


An arc of an electric arc furnace as a virtual short circuit is purely resistive load but the reactor connected in series with primary of furnace transformer to smoothen the arc makes the total combination as an inductive load, with its fluctuating active and reactive power requirements, it leads to power quality issues such as poor power factor, harmonic generation, etc. This paper presents measurement and analysis of harmonics generated by alternate current electric arc furnace (AC EAF) and laddle furnace (LF) loads and also defines terms like harmonics, total harmonic distortion etc. Harmonic Filter Banks (HFB) of static Var compensator (SVC) are tuned to particular order of frequency to provide least resistance path to that order of harmonics for elimination. This paper also describes design criteria for harmonic filter banks of 100 Hz, 150 Hz and 200 Hz and presents the SVC as a solution for control of harmonics. The final results are compared with allowable limits set by international standards.


How to Cite
Mandi, R. P., Patel, J. J., Jariwala, H. R., & Vashi, A. (2013). Control of Harmonics Generated by Alternating Current Electric Arc Furance and Laddle Furnace. Power Research - A Journal of CPRI, 9(1), 103–116. Retrieved from


  1. Bhaktavatsalam A K and Choudhury R. “Specifi c energy consumption in the Steel Industry”, Energy, Vol. 20, No. 12, pp. 1247– 1250, 1995.
  2. Chatterjee, Amit and Singh R. “The Steel industry in India, ironmaking and steelmaking”, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 293–302, 1996.
  3. Timm K, Hamburg. “Basic principals of Electric furnaces”, Edited by Plockinger E and Etterich O, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, pp. 127–160, 1985.
  4. Website: Harmonic.
  5. Ramakrishnaiah R. “Impact of harmonics and voltage fl uctuation in reactive power problems”, Electrical India, pp. 25–27, 15th October 1996.
  6. Mohan N and Girish R Kamath. “Active power fi lters-recent advance”, Sadhana, Vol. 22, Part 6, pp. 723–732, December 1997.
  7. Fenghua W, Zhijian J. “Application of extended Kalman fi lter to the Modeling of electric arc furnace for power quality issues”, Proc. of International Conference on Neural Networks and Brain (ICNN&B), pp. 991–996, 2005.
  8. Parniani M, Mokhtari H, Hejri M. “Effects of dynamic reactive compensation in arc furnace operation characteristics and its economic benefi ts”, Proc. of Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition, IEEE/PES, pp. 1044–1049, 2002.
  9. Rajanbabu P C. “Harmonics”, Proc. Training Programme on Conducting Energy Audit, CPRI, Energy Research Centre, Trivandrum695017, 105–110, 1999.
  10. Worrell, Ernst, Price L, Nathan Martin, Jacco Farla and Roberto Schaeffer. “Energy intensity in the Iron and Steel Industry”, Energy Policy, Vol. 25, Nos. 7–9, pp. 727– 744, 1997.
  11. Schmale K, Kerste D. “Metal 2003” CONARC - All purpose Steelmaking, Hradec and Moravici, Czech Republic, May 20–22nd, 2003.
  12. Dosa G, Kepes A, Ma T and Fantin P. “Computer control of high-power electric furnaces”, Proc. of 35th Conference of Metallurgists of the Metallurgical Society of CIM, Montreal, Quebec, August 24–29, 1996.
  13. Boulet B, Lalli G and Ajersch M. “Modeling and control of an electric arc furnace’, Proc. of the American Control Conference, Denver, Colorado, June 4–6, 2003.
  14. CPRI. A report on Harmonic Study at Essar Steel Complex, M/s Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore, India, 2012.
  15. ANSI/IEEE Std. 519-1992, IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonic control in Electric Power Systems.
  16. Vashi A. “Concept and MATLABTM simulation of Static Var Compensator”, Proc. of National Conference on Reactive Power Management, Vadodara, December 02–03th, 2012.
  17. Joseph S S and Mcquilkin J S. “Harmonicscauses, effects, measurements and analysis update,” IEEE Transactions on industry applications, Vol. 3, pp. 55–66, 1989.
  18. Static Var compensator supplied by M/s ABB Switzerland Limited, 2010.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>